Gambia Decided To Withdraw From The Commonwealth
The Gambia is on 2 October decided to withdraw from the Commonwealth, 48 years after joining. Gambian, a West African country joined the Commonwealth of Nations in 1965.The last country to be withdrawn from the Commonwealth group was Zimbabwe in 2003.The Commonwealth of Nations is a voluntary association of 54 countries, many of them former territories of the British Empire. It was established in 1949.

China and EU Signed Bilateral Currency Swap Agreement
China and the European Union signed a 350 billion yuan (45 billion euro) currency swap agreement on 10 October.The agreement signed between the People’s Bank of China and the European Central Bank (ECB), aims to support bilateral trade and protect financial stability.

US and Vietnam Signed Nuclear Trade Agreement
The US and Vietnam have on 10 October signed a agreement on civilian nuclear power that will allow american firms in to the market and commits the vietnamese to not producing ingredients for aotmic weapons.U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry and his vietnamese counterpart signed the “123 agreement ” at the East Asian Summit in Brunei .

Mulatu Teshome Elected New President of Ethiopia
Ethiopia’s parliament on 7 October elected Mulatu Teshome as the country’s new president for a six-year term. Mulatu Teshome will replace Girma Wolde Giorgis, who first took the post in 2001 and was re-elected in 2007.Mulatu Teshome was elected at a joint session of the House of Peoples Representatives (HPR) and the House of Federation (HoF). Mulatu Teshome is the Fourth president of Ethiopia.

Five New Members Elected To UN Security Council
The UN General Assembly on 18 October elected Chad, Chile, Lithuania, Nigeria and Saudi Arabia to a two-year term in the UN Security Council.Saudi Arabia rejected its seat on the United Nations Security Council because of the failure of the international community to end the war in Syria and act on other Middle East issues.The New Council members will replace Azerbaijan, Guatemala, Morocco, Pakistan and Togo.The new members will assume their posts on 1 January 2014 and serve through the end of 2015.The 15 Members of  the Security Council has five veto-wielding permanent members — the United States, Britain, France, Russia, and China — and 10 nonpermanent members.

Social Democratic Party Won Czech Republic Elections
The CSSD Social Democratic Party has won the parliamentary elections held in the Czech Republic with 20.5 percent of the vote.The office of statistics in Prague announced on 26 October.Coming in third was the KSCM Communist Party, with 15 percent, while the the party that was in power until recently, the liberal Top 09, was left with 11.9 percent.Also finding a place in the 200-seat parliament was the liberal ODS party, which crashed from 20 percent in 2010 to 7.7 percent this time out.The conservative Christian Democrat KDU-SCL with 6.8 percent, and the new Dawn of Direct Democracy party of the senator and businessman of Japanese origin, Tomio Okamura, with 6.9 percent.


India To Reach 160 cr Population By 2050
On 2 October According to the French Institute of Demographic Studies (INED) survey report, India will be a country of 160 crore population by 2050.Then, China, currently world No 1 with 130 crore, will become No 2 with 130 crore people.The total world population is projected to rise to 9.7 billion in 2050 from the current 710 crore.Besides, China and India, currently, the world’s most populous countries are: the US 31 crore, Indonesia 24.8 crore and Brazil 19.5 crore.According to the report, the projected population of other countries in the world by 2050  will be :- Nigeria 44 crore, US 40 crore, Indonesia 36 crore, Pakistan 36 crore, Brazil 22 crore, Bangladesh 20 crore, Congo 18crore, Ethiopia 17 crore, Philippines  15 crore, Mexico  15 crore, Russia 13 crore, Tanzania 12 crore, Egypt 12 crore, Uganda 11crore, Vietnam 10 crore, Iran 9.9 crore, Japan  9.7 crore, Kenya 9.7 crore, Turkey  9.3 crore, Iraq 8 crore, UK 7.9 crore, Germany 7.6 crore, France 7.2 crore.

Bangladesh and India Inaugurated Joint Power Transmission Plant
Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina and Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh on 5 October jointly inaugurated the India-Bangladesh Grid Inter-connection at Bheramara in Bangladesh.The joint venture was launched through video-conferencing. The transmission line and the HVDC station in Bheramara provide a safe and reliable interconnection of the power grids of our two countries, which will enable supply of 500 MW of power from India to Bangladesh.Both the Prime Ministers also jointly laid the foundation stone for 1320 megawatt Maitri Thermal Power Project, being developed by Bangladesh-India friendship power-company which is a joint venture of India’s NTPC and Bangladesh Power Development Board.

Global Hunger Index Report 2013
The 2013 Global Hunger Index (GHI), released on 14th October 2013 by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), Welthungerhilfe, and Concern Worldwide- revealed that 842 million people were chronically under nourished across the world.South Asia continued to have the maximum number of hungry people in the world, followed by sub-Saharan Africa.India has moved from 65 to 63 in the Global Hunger Index, making a marginal improvement since 2012, but continues to suffering far behind other emerging economies.

Global Slavery Index – 2013
The Australia-based rights organisation Walk Free Foundation (WFF) on 17 October released its first ‘Global Slavery Index – 2013, ranking 162 countries on the number of people in slavery and bondage per capita and the absolute number of slaves.According to the report , About 14 million Indians are living in conditions of modern-day slavery, nearly half of 30 million across the world.The ten countries on the list, which follow India (13,956,010)  , are:-  China (2,949,243), Pakistan (2,127,132), Nigeria (701,032), Ethiopia(651,110),Russia(516,210), Thailand(472,811), Democratic Republic of Congo (462,327), Myanmar (384,037), and Bangladesh (343,192).Mauritania has the highest proportion of people in slavery, with many people inheriting slave status from their ancestors.Haiti came second in the index, with about one in 10 children trapped in an exploitative system of child labor.The survey revealed that 72 percent of people in modern slavery lived in Asia.The WFF defines modern slavery as something which includes slavery itself along with other slavery-like practices such as forced marriage, debt bondage, forced labour and human trafficking.The Foundation’s estimate of 29.8 million slaves worldwide is higher than other attempts to quantify modern slavery. The UN estimates almost 21 million people are victims of forced labour.

India and China Signed Border Defence Cooperation Agreement
India and China have signed a Border Defence Cooperation Agreement (BDCA) to maintain peace and tranquility on the Line of Actual Control.The agreement is one of the nine MOUs/agreements signed by the two countries on 23 October.The agreements were signed after the bilateral talks between Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and Chinese Premier Li Keqiang in Beijing.The other 8 agreements/Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) were :-
(i) MoU on Nalanda University (ii) MOU to Strengthen Cooperation on Trans-Border Rivers (iii) Cultural Exchange Programme 2013-15 (iv) MoU on Cooperation in Road Transport and Highways (v) MoU on Power Equipment Service Centres in India (vi) Agreement between Delhi-Beijing on Establishment of Sister City Relationship (vii) Agreement between Bengaluru – Chengdu on Establishment of Sister City Relationship (viii) Agreement between Kolkata – Kunming on Establishment of Sister City Relationship.

1.3 Million People Died of  Tuberculosis (TB) Worldwide in 2012
The  “Global tuberculosis report 2013” released by World Health Organization (WHO) on 23 October.According to the report , Tuberculosis (TB) killed 1.3 million people worldwide in 2012, while India alone accounted for 26 per cent of total TB cases globally.The report found that global TB deaths decreased to 1.3 million in 2012, which is 100,000 less than the previous year.Approximately 75 per cent of total TB deaths occurred in the African and South-East Asia Regions in 2012. India and South Africa accounted for about one-third of global TB deaths.The report also found that the number of people ill with TB fell to 8.6 million in 2012.The largest number of incident cases in 2012 were India (2.0 million-2.4 million), China (0.9 million-1.1 million) and South Africa (0.4 million-0.6 million).The majority of TB cases worldwide in 2012 were in the South-East Asia (29 per cent), African (27 per cent) and Western Pacific (19 per cent) regions.


Union Cabinet Decided to Withdraw Ordinance and Bill Relating to Representation of People’s Act
Union Cabinet on 2 October decided to withdraw the ordinance on convicted lawmakers, as well as the Bill that sought to amend the Representation of the People Act.The Union Cabinet had approved on 24 September 2013.The ordinance, once promulgated, will allow the convicted MPs or MLAs to continue in office if their appeal is admitted by a higher court within 90 days of conviction by the trial court.The Ordinance which sought to negate the Supreme Court order of 10 July 2013 which ruled that any lawmaker would stand immediately disqualified if convicted by a court.

CCEA approves Rashtriya Uchchatar Shiksha Abhiyan (RUSA)
The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs approved the Rashtriya Uchchatar Shiksha Abhiyan (RUSA) , a Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS) on 3 October for reforming the state higher education system.During the 12th Plan period, 80 new universities would be created by converting autonomous colleges/colleges in a cluster to State universities. 100 new colleges, including professional/technical colleges would be set up and 54 existing colleges would be converted into model degree colleges.In the 12th Plan period, RUSA would have a financial outlay of 22855 crore Rupees, out of which 16227 crore Rupees will be borne by the Centre.Apart from this, allocation of 1800 crore Rupees in the 12th Plan for the existing scheme Sub-Mission polytechnics would also be subsumed in RUSA.Centre-State funding would be in the ratio of 90:10 for North-Eastern States, Sikkim, Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand and 65:35 for other States and Union Territories.RUSA will be a new Centrally Sponsored Scheme spread over two plan periods, for improving access, equity and quality in the state higher education system.

64,000 Married Men Commit Suicide Every Year In India
On 3 October According to the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) statistics revealed more incidences of suicide by married men than by married women.
Highlights of the Report  :-
* The alleged misuse of section 498 A of IPC is leading to a rise in men’s suicides in the country.A report of the National Crime Records Bureau(NCRB) has pointed out that nearly 64,000 men are committing suicide every year due to this section.
*  In 2012 approximately 64,000 married men committed suicide vis-a-vis 32,000 married women.
* As per the Survey , In West Bengal the number of cases under the section has grown exponentially at the rate of 11 per cent in the last two years but the conviction rate has dropped to just 4.4 per cent from 6.3 per cent earlier.The state accounts for 1.06 lakh cases recorded.

Cabinet Approves National Identification Authority of India Bill
The Union Cabinet on 8 October approved the National Identification Authority of India Bill that will give statutory status to the Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI).The new law will provide for the creation of a National Identification Authority of India ,which will oversee implementation of the Aadhaar project.The bill will give legal backing to Aadhaar, the project which aspires to give every Indian a uniquely identifiable number based on biometrics.Besides giving statutory status to the Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI), the Bill seeks to provide legal backing to Aadhaar, which is used to disburse subsidies.Adhaar is a unique Identification number issued by UIDAI to individuals for the purpose of establishing unique identification of every single person. It serves as the proof of identity and address anywhere in India.Aadhaar is a 12-digit number.

Land Acquisition Act To Come into effect from 2014 January 1
Union Minister for Rural Development Jairam Ramesh on 15 October announced the 2013 Land Acquisition Act would come into force on January 1, 2014.The new law received the assent of the President on 27 September 2013.Rural Development Minister Jairam Ramesh took the decision after consideration of another view, particularly from state governments, that the Act replacing a 119-year-old legislation should be notified from April 1, 2014.


Gujarat Lokayukta Aayog Bill 2013 Passed By State Assembly
The Gujarat Lokayukta Aayog Bill 2013 has been passed by state Assembly on 1 October after it was returned by Governor Kamla Beniwal. The Governor had on September 2 returned the Lokayukta Aayog Bill 2013 passed by the Assembly in April, 2013.

Foundation Stone Laid For First Mega Food Park In Uttar Pradesh
Union Minister of State for Agriculture and Food Processing, Government of India Dr. Charan Das Mahant laid the foundation stone on 8 October for establishment of Shaktiman mega Food Park (the first in the north India) in Jagdishpur of Amethi district in Uttar Pradesh.The Shaktiman Mega Food Park was set up with assistance under the programme Scheme of Mega Food Parks.It will be developed with the assistance of Aditya Birla Group.The Park will have most-modern infrastructure and facilities for food processing.

President Gave Assent To Uttarakhand Lokayukta Bill
The President of India Pranab Mukherjee on 17 October 2013 gave his assent to the Uttarakhand Lokayukta Bill ,which will bring the chief minister among others under the ambit of the ombudsman, with a provision of punishment up to life imprisonment.With this Uttarakhand Lokayukta Bill became an Act.The main objective of the Lokayukta Act was to curb corruption in the Uttarakhand state.The Bill was unanimously passed by the Uttarakhand Assembly on October 2011.

Assembly Elections Schedule Announced For Five States
The Election Commission on 4 October announced the schedule for Assembly Elections to be held in five states, namely Delhi, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and Mizoram will be held between 2013 November 11 and 2013 December 4.The counting of votes will be held for Delhi, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh on 8 December 2013.The Election Commission on 23 October changed the Mizoram assembly election schedule by advancing the polling on November 25 and postponing the counting by a day to December 9.As per the Supreme Court direction a ‘None of the Above’ button (the option of rejecting all candidates) would be provided in electronic voting machines in the polls.Over 11 crore electorate in all five states.630 Assembly seats in total in five states.
Five States Election Schedule as Announced by the Election Commission :-
* Chhattisgarh- 11 Nov 2013 (Phase I), 19 Nov 2013 (Phase II) – (90-member state assembly)
* Madhya Pradesh- 25 Nov 2013 –  (230-member state assembly)
* Rajasthan- 1 Dec 2013 – (200- member state assembly)
* Delhi- 4 Dec 2013 – (70- member state assembly)
* Mizoram- 25 Nov 2013 – (40- member state assembly)

Himachal Becomes 2nd State After Haryana To Introduce NVQF
Himachal Pradesh on 26 October has become the second state after Haryana to introduce Centre’s National Vocational Qualitative Framework ( NVQF) Scheme.The scheme has been implemented by the All India Technical Education Council and the National Skill Development Council. As per the scheme, 70 skill development councils will be established and each council will be given specific trades. The scheme was being implemented for students of Class IX to Class XI and every student has to clear four levels to get the certificate.

Gujarat CM Laid The Foundation Stone Of Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel’s Statue
Gujarat Chief Minister Narendra Modi on 31 October laid  the foundation of the Statute of Unity-a 182-metre tall statue (World’s largest statue) of  India’s first Home Minister and iron man Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel on his 138th birth anniversary at Sardar Sarovar Dam site in Bharuch district in Gujarat.The Statue of Unity will be double of the height of the Statue of Liberty (93 metres) in the USA.This Statue , which is being constructed at a cost of Rs. 2,074 crore, will be double of the height of the Statue of Liberty (93 metres) in the USA.The statue is to be built on an island called Sadhu Bet on the river Narmada in Gujarat.The ‘Spring Temple Buddha’ statue in China is the closest rival at a height of 153 metre.


23rd ASEAN Summit Held in Brunei Darussalam
The 23rd ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) summit was held in Brunei Darussalam on 9 – 10 October 2013.The theme of the summit is “Our People, Our Future Together”.The leaders of 10 ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) member countries discussed on ways to consolidate these gains to meet the 2015 target of having an economically integrated, politically cohesive and socially responsible ASEAN Community and to ensure ASEAN’s place in the global community of nations by 2015 and beyond.One of the highlights of the ASEAN Summit in Brunei was the turn-over of the Chairmanship to Myanmar who for the first time assumes leadership of this regional organisation beginning 1 January 2014.The 10 ASEAN nations are Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Laos, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam.The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) was established in 1967.


Malala Yousafzai Won EU’s Sakharov Human Rights Prize 2013
Pakistani schoolgirl and campaigner Malala Yousafzai, who was shot in the head by the Taliban, has won the European Union’s (EU) Sakharov human rights prize 2013 on 10 October .In 2012 the award went to detained Iranians, lawyer Nasrin Sotoudeh and film maker Jafar Panahi, to honour those standing up for a better Iran.The Sakharov Prize for free speech is awarded by the European Parliament annually in memory of Soviet physicist and dissident Andrei Sakharov.Previous winners include former South African president Nelson Mandela and former UN secretary-general Kofi Annan.

M.S Swaminathan Gets ‘ Indira Gandhi National Integration Award ‘
Eminent agricultural scientist Dr. M.S Swaminathan, known as the father of Green Revolution, on 10 October selected for the Indira Gandhi Award for National Integration for the year 2012.Previous recipients of the Award are Aruna Asaf Ali, P N Haksar, M S Subbulakshmi, A P J Abdul Kalam and Shankar Dayal Sharma and Rajiv Gandhi (posthumously).The Indian national congress, in its centenary year 1985, instituted an Indira Gandhi award for national integration to give recognition to outstanding contribution to this cause by distinguished individuals or institutions.

2013 Nobel Prize Winners
The Nobel Prize winners of 2013 in the different categories were announced in the month of October 2013. Nobel Prizes are announced by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences every year in the memory of Alfred Nobel.The categories were the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, the Nobel Prize in Physics, the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences, The Nobel Literature Prize and The Nobel Peace Prize.Swedish industrialist, inventor, and armaments manufacturer Alfred Nobel established the prizes in 1895.The prizes in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace were first awarded in 1901.The related Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences was created in 1968.The prize is awarded on December 10 in Oslo City Hall each year.The value of each prize is 1.2 million US Dollar.
The Nobel Prize winners of 2013 in the different categories were as follows:-
Medicine :- James Rothman and Randy Schekman of US as well as German-born Thomas Suedhof won the 2013 Nobel Prize for Medicine and Physiology .They were awarded for their groundbreaking work on how the cell organises its transport system. James Rothman, Randy Schekman and Thomas Suedhof work at the US universities.The three of them discovered the complex transport system in the human body which makes the delivery of the life-saving proteins and molecules at right place and right time. James Rothman, Randy Schekman and Thomas Suedhof work at the Yale University, University of California and Stanford University respectively.
Physics :- Peter Higgs, United Kingdom and Francois Englert , Belgium jointly awarded Nobel Prize for Physics.They were awarded for the theoretical discovery of a mechanism that contributes to our understanding of the origin of mass of subatomic particles.Their contribution forms the cornerstone of modern particle physics.Higgs and Francois Englert discovered a quantum field which is a distribution of energy, throughout the universe. It is a field with special properties. When the field is disturbed, waves travel through it. The dimmest possible wave is called a particle in the field. They called this field as Higgs field. In the Higgs field particles are called as Higgs Boson.
Chemistry :- Michael Levitt, a British and US citizen of Stanford University, US-Austrian Martin Karplus of Strasbourg University and US-Israeli Arieh Warshel of the University of Southern California share The Nobel Prize in Chemistry.They were awarded Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2013 for the development of multi scale models for complex chemical systems.
Literature :- Canada’s Alice Munro won the Nobel literature prize for her short stories that focus on the frailties of the human condition, becoming just the 13th woman to win in the history of the coveted award.The Swedish Academy honoured Munro as a master of the contemporary short story. She won the Man International Booker Prize in 2009 for a body of work.She won the Giller Prize twice, for The Love of a Good Woman in 1998 and Runaway in 2004.
Economics :- The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences decided to award The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel for 2013 to Eugene F. Fama, Lars Peter Hansen and Robert J. Shiller for their empirical analysis of asset prices.The three American Economists awarded for their work on creating a deeper knowledge of how market prices move.
Peace :- The Nobel Peace Prize for 2013 has been awarded to the Organisation for the Prevention of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) for its extensive efforts to eliminate chemical weapons.The Hague-based OPCW was founded in 1997 to implement the Chemical Weapons Convention signed on January 13, 1993.The organisation is presently involved in destroying Syria’s stockpiles of chemical weapons – the first time the OPCW has worked in a war zone.This marks the second consecutive year an organisation has won the prestigious award. Last year’s award went to the European Union.

Eleanor Catton Wins 2013 Man Booker Prize
New Zealand author Eleanor Catton at the age of just 28 years, became the youngest ever winner of the ‘ 2013 Man Booker Prize ‘ for her novel ” The Luminaries ” on 15 October at the London’s Guildhall.Her 832-page novel The Luminaries is the story of 19th-century goldfields, which won 50000 Pound Man Booker Prize 2013 along with a trophy, and Emmanuel Roman.The Luminaries is also the longest work to win this prize in the history of 45 years of Man Booker Prize.The Luminaries is the longest ever book to win this Prize, beating Hilary Mantel’s 672-page Wolf Hall which received the Man Booker Prize 2009.

Lata Mangeshkar Honoured With The First ” Yash Chopra Memorial Award”
Legendary singer and Bharat Ratna awardee Lata Mangeshkar has been honoured with the First Yash Chopra Memorial Award.The Award carries a cash prize of Rs 10 lakhs (One million) and a citation was presented by the Union Union Minister for Information & Broadcasting Manish Tewari at a star studded function in Mumbai on 19 October.The award is a tribute to the legendary filmmaker Yash Chopra on the eve of his first death anniversary.Yash Chopra the memorial award will be given annually to people in recognition of their outstanding contribution in the field of art and culture.The Yash Chopra Memorial Award has been instituted by the TSR Foundation of T. Subbarami Reddy.

Aung Suu Kyi Received EU ‘ Sakharov ‘ Prize After 23 years
Myanmar opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi  was on 22 October presented with the European Union’s Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought at Strasbourg, France.She was chosen by the European Parliament in 1990.The Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought announced by the European Parliament in 1990 when she was under house arrest.The Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought, named after Soviet scientist and dissident Andrei Sakharov, was established in December 1988 by the European Parliament as a means to honour individuals or organisations who have dedicated their lives to the defence of human rights and freedom of thought.


Sports Ministry Announced HRD scheme In Sports
Government of India, Ministry of Youth Affairs & Sports have revised the existing ‘Scheme relating to Talent Search & Training’ and renamed it as ‘Scheme of Human Resources Development in Sports’. This was announced by the Minister of Youth Affairs and Sports Shri Jitendra Singh on 1 October.The scheme intends to award fellowships and scholarships, besides providing financial grants to a number of projects in order to develop one of the top 10 sporting nations in the country.

Mumbai Indians Won 2013 Champions League Twenty-20
Mumbai Indians won the 2013 Champions League Twenty-20 title after defeated Rajasthan Royals by 33 runs in New Delhi on 6 October.This was the second Champions League Twenty-20 title for Mumbai Indians.The Mumbai Indians secured the Champions League Twenty20 title in 2011 after defeated Bangalore Royal Challengers.Harbhajan Singh gets Man of the Match.Dwayne Smith, in the meanwhile, was declared Champion of the Series.This was the last T-20 match of Sachin Tendulkar and Royals skipper Rahul Dravid after they both announced their retirement from T-20 format.

China Open Tennis Tournament 2013 Winners
Women’s Singles :- Serena Williams (U.S) won the China Open Tennis Tournament women’s singles title on 6 October at the National Tennis Stadium in Beijing, China.Williams defeated Jelena Jankovic of Serbia in the final.It was her 10th title of the year.
Men’s Singles :- Novak Djokovic (Serbia) won his fourth China Open Men’s Singles title in five years ,after defeated Rafael Nadal (Spain) in the final.Novak Djokovic won the same tournament earlier in 2009, 2010 and 2012.
Women’s Doubles :- Sania Mirza won the China Open tennis doubles title with Cara Black of Zimbabwe on 5 October in Beijing.They defeated Vera Dushevina of Russia and Arantxa Parra Santonja of Spain in the final.It is fifth title of the season for Sania Mirza and 19th overall.
Men’s Doubles :- Belarus’ Max Mirnyi and Romania’s Horia Tecau have won the men’s doubles title.They defeated Italian pair Fabio Fognini -Andreas Seppi in the final.

Sachin Tendulkar Announced Retirement From Test Cricket
India legendary batsman Sachin Tendulkar on 10 October announced his decision to retire from Test cricket after playing his landmark 200th Test match against the West Indies in November 2013. Previously, Sachin Tendulkar announced retirement form one day cricket on 23 December 2012 and from Twenty20 cricket format on 26 May 2013.The Sachin Tendulkar made his Test debut against arch-rival Pakistan at Karachi in 1989. He is the only batsman to score 100 international centuries — 51 in Tests and 49 in ODIs.His 198 Test appearances yielded 15,837 runs at an average of 53.86.From his 463 ODI matches, he had, under his belt, a whopping 18,426 at an average of 44.83.

Virat Kohli Becomes Fastest Indian To Score Century In ODIs
Virat Kohli has added another feather to his illustrious cap scoring a century off only 52 deliveries, thus becoming the fastest Indian to score a One-Day International (ODI) century.This is the seventh fastest century in ODI cricket.He achieved the feat against Australia in the second ODI at the Sawai Mansingh Stadium in Jaipur on 16 October.Kohli broke Virender Sehwag’s 60-ball century which was scored against New Zealand at Hamilton in 2009. Kohli’s knock at Jaipur was punctuated by eight boundaries and seven sixes.

North and South Zone Declared Joint Winners of Duleep Trophy
North Zone and South Zone were declared joint winners of the Duleep Trophy 2013-14 after the fifth day’s play of the final match was called off due to bad weather in Kochi on 21 October .Only 10 overs, on the second day on 18 October were possible in the five-day match as wet ground conditions at the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium due to persistent rain played spoilsport.It was the fourth instance in the history of Duleep Trophy when the title has been shared.

Sebastian Vettel Wins 4th F1 Title at Indian Grand Prix
German Red Bull driver Sebastian Vettel won the Indian Grand Prix on 27 October at the Buddh International Circuit in Greater Noida ,Uttar Pradesh.He becomes the youngest ever racer to win Formula one Championship four times in a row.Mercedes Nico Rosberg (GER) finish second followed by Romain Grosjean (FRA) of Lotus in third place.Only two drivers before Vettel have won four straight titles – Juan Manuel Fangio from Argentina and German great Michael Schumacher. Frenchman Alain Prost is another driver who has won four titles but he did not win those in a row and Vettel is now youngest quadruple champion at the age 26.At present he is the world champion as he won the Championship in 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013 .


Mumbai 72nd Rank On Global Financial Centre Index
On 1 October Mumbai has slipped six places to 72nd rank, the bottom 10, on the Global Financial Centre Index (GFCI), while London has retained its top slot.Mumbai is the only Indian city to find a place on this bi-annual list of 80 financial centres globally and was ranked 66th in its previous edition published in March this year.In the top-five, London is followed by New York, Hong Kong, Singapore and Tokyo.Others in the top 10 are: Zurich (6th), Boston (7th), Geneva (8th), Frankfurt (9th), Seoul (10th).Although New Delhi, the country’s political hub, was added the GFCI questionnaire recently, it is “yet to acquire sufficient assessments to be included in the index”.

India Ranks 78th On Human Capital Index
According to the global Human Capital Index , India has been placed at a low 78th slot on a global Human Capital Index, which ranks countries on the basis of economic potential of their labour force, while Switzerland has topped the ranking. According to the list of total 122 countries released on 1 October by the Geneva-based World Economic Forum (WEF), India has been ranked lower than three of its BRICS peers — China (43rd), Russia (51st) and Brazil (57th), while South Africa is placed at 86th place.

India Tops Foreign Remittances Recipients List
The World Bank report entitled ” Migration and Remittance Flows: Recent Trends and Outlook-2013-16 ” released on 2 October revealed that India emerged as the largest recipient of foreign remittances among developing economies in 2013.In 2013 Non-Resident Indians (NRI) sent a record 71 billion Dollars home compared to 70 billion dollars in 2012. According to a Word Bank report NRIs are estimated to remit up to 85 billion dollars a year by 2015.India (with an estimated 71 billion Dollars) continued to top the remittances list in 2012 while China is placed a close second with $66 billion expected migrant remittances in the same year.The  Philippines (26 billion Dollars) got third place in the list.Globally, the world’s 232 million international migrants are expected to remit earnings worth 550 billion Dollars in 2013 and over 700 billion Dollars by 2016.Remittance is the act of transmitting money to a distant location to fulfill an obligation. International remittances are transfers of funds by foreign workers—remitters—who are living and working in other countries typically to their families who are still living in their home countries.

World Bank cuts India’s 2013-14 GDP forecast to 4.7%
The World Bank on 16 October slashed India’s economic growth forecast for the current financial year to 4.7 percent from an earlier projection of 6.1 percent.In April, the World Bank had projected India’s GDP would grow at 6.1 percent in the current financial year and at 6.7 percent the following year.

Four Indians in Fortune’s List of 50 Most Powerful Women in Business
On 20 October Four Indians led by ICICI Bank CEO Chanda Kochhar have made to Fortune magazine’s global list of top-50 women business leaders, while PepsiCo chief Indra Nooyi has been ranked second in a similar list for the US.Kochhar has been ranked fourth, followed by National Stock Exchange chief Chitra Ramkrishna at 17th, Axis Bank’s Shikha Sharma at 32nd and HSBC’s Naina Lal Kidwai at 42nd place among the Indians on the international list of most powerful women in business.Kochhar, Managing Director and CEO of India’s largest private sector bank, has moved up one position from her fifth position on the 2012 list, while NSE’s Ramkrishna has made it to the list for the first time.This list is topped by Brazilian energy giant Petrobras’ CEO, Maria Das Gracas Foster, followed by Turkish conglomerate Sabanci Holding’s Guler Sabanci at the second and Australian banking giant Westpac’s CEO Gail Kelly at the third.

RBI increases Repo Rate By 25 Basis Points
The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) on 29 October released the Second Quarter Review of Monetary Policy 2013-14.According the released statement by the RBI, the Repo rate increased by 25 basis points from 7.5 percent to 7.75 percent.
The highlights of the Second Quarter Review of Monetary Policy 2013-14 :-
* RBI reduced the marginal standing facility (MSF) rate by 25 basis points from 9.0 percent to 8.75 percent with immediate effect.
* RBI also increased the policy repo rate under the liquidity adjustment facility (LAF) by 25 basis points from 7.5 percent to 7.75 percent with immediate effect.
* Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR) unchanged at 4 Percent
* RBI downward FY14 GDP growth to 5 percent from 5.7 percent.


India Successfully Test Fired Nuclear Capable ‘ Prithvi-II ‘ Missile
India on 7 October test-fired its indigenously developed nuclear-capable Prithvi-II missile with a strike range of 350 km from Chandipur Integrated test range in Odisha.India on 8 October successfully test-fired for the second time Prithvi-II missile from a test range at Chandipur.The surface-to-surface missile was test fired from a mobile launcher.The Prithvi II missile inducted into India’s Strategic Forces Command in 2003, the Prithvi II missile is the first missile to be developed by DRDO under India’s Integrated Guided Missile Development Program.It is capable of carrying 500 kg to 1000 kg of warheads and thrusted by liquid propulsion twine engines, uses advanced inertial guidance system with manoeuvring trajectory.The last user trial of Prithvi-II was successfully carried out from the same base on 12 August 2013.

Naval Offshore Patrol Vessel INS ‘ Sunayna ‘ Commissioned
INS Sunayna, the second of the Naval Offshore Patrol Vessel class of ship, was on 15 October commissioned by Vice Admiral Satish Soni, Flag Officer Commanding in Chief Southern Naval Command.The ship was designed and built by the public sector Goa Shipyard.INS Sunayna will strengthen the Indian Navy capability to safeguard the maritime interests.Two diesel engines propel INS Sunayna and enables it to achieve speeds in excess of 25 knots. The ship also has an automatic power management system and is fitted with the latest Navigation, Communication and Electronic Support Systems.The ship is equipped with the most advanced communication, navigation and electronic warfare equipment besides a 76-mm SRGM (Super Rapid Gun Mount), and close-in weapon system (CIWS). The vessel also has the ability to embark an advanced light helicopter (ALH) or a Chetak search and rescue helicopter.

Scientist Developed World’s First Fully Bionic Man
In the month of October 2013 Scientists have developed the world’s first robot human (Bionic man) made entirely of prosthetic parts.The bionic man can walk, talk and has a beating heart.Bionic man was assembled from prosthetic body parts and artificial organs donated by laboratories around the world.The bionic man also has a nearly complete set of artificial organs including an artificial heart, blood, lungs (and windpipe), pancreas, spleen, kidney and functional circulatory system.He also sports a cochlear implant, speech recognition and speech production systems. He lacks a few major organs including liver, stomach and intestines, which are too complex to replicate in a lab. His brain can mimic certain functions of the human brain and he has a retinal prosthesis.Roboticists Rich Walker and Matthew Godden of Shadow Robot Co in England developed the bionic man.The robot was modeled in some physical aspects after Bertolt Meyer, a social psychologist at the University of Zurich in Switzerland, who wears one of the world’s most advanced bionic hands.The total cost for development of the robot is around 1 million US Dollars.

Chinese Scientists Developed Bird Flu Vaccine
Chinese scientists announced on 25 October they had successfully developed the vaccine for the H7N9 bird flu virus.This is the first influenza vaccine ever developed by Chinese scientists.The vaccine has provided important technical support to battle the new flu strain, making contribution to the H7N9 flu virus epidemic control all over the world.

World’s Most Powerful ‘ MRI ‘ Scanner Developed
Scientists have developed the world’s most powerful MRI scanner – strong enough to lift a 60 metric tonne battle tank.The imager’s superconducting electromagnet is designed to produce a field of 11.75 Teslas, making it the world’s most powerful whole-body scanner. Most standard hospital MRIs produce 1.5 or 3 Teslas.The development of the scanner, known as Imaging of Neuro disease Using high-field MR And Contrastophores (INUMAC), has been in progress since 2006 and is expected to cost about USD 270 million.



Arundhati Bhattacharya Takes Charge As First Woman Chief of  SBI
Arundhati Bhattacharya on 7 October took over as the new chairperson of the State Bank of India (SBI). She is the first woman to be appointed to the top job at the country’s largest lender.She succeeds Pratip Chaudhuri who retired on 30 September 2013.She will hold the post for a period of three years in this 207-year-old bank.This is the first time that an SBI chief will get a three-year tenure —  the first time that any SBI chairperson is getting such a fixed term— irrespective of when the person will retire.Bhattacharya is the bank’s 24th chairperson of  State Bank of India (SBI).Earlier, she was managing director and chief financial officer of SBI.She also holds the distinction of becoming the first woman managing director of SBI in 2013 August. She joined SBI in 1977 as a probationary officer and has served in various positions, including head of SBI Capital Markets Ltd, the bank’s investment banking unit.

Janet Yellen Nominated as Head of US Federal Reserve Board
US President Barack Obama has on 9 October nominated Federal Reserve Board vice-chair Janet Yellen to be the next head of the Federal Reserve Board.Janet Yellen replaced Ben Bernanke as Chair of the Federal Reserve Board.Janet Louise Yellen took office as Vice Chair of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System on 4 October 2010, for a four-year term.Janet Yellen is the first woman to lead the Federal Reserve Board and also the first Democrat to head the Board since 1979.

Pakistan Appoints Ibne Abbas new Envoy To India
Pakistan has appointed on 9 October Syed Ibne Abbas as its new high commissioner to India replacing Salman Bashir.Previously Syed Ibne Abbas served as the Director of Kashmir Affairs at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.He also acted as the Director General of the South Asia division.

Arunendra Kumar Appointed as new Chairman of  Railway Board
The Railways on 16 October  appointed acting Chairman of the Railway Board Arunendra Kumar as the head of the Board.Arunendra Kumar, the Mechanical Member, was holding additional charge of Chairman, Railway Board (CRB) after the retirement of Vinay Mittal on June 30.

Air Marshal Arup Raha Appointed as new IAF Chief
Air Marshal Arup Raha has been appointed on 29 October as the next chief of the Indian Air Force (IAF).He will take over as the next chief of the Indian Air Force on December 31, 2013 after the retirement of Air Chief Marshal N A K Browne.Air Marshal Raha is currently  serving as the IAF vice-chief.He joined IAF in December 1974 in the Fighter Stream.During a career spanning over 39 years, he has held various command, staff and instructional appointments in the force.He has served as Air Attache at the Indian embassy in Ukraine and commanded the Central Air Command and the Western Air Command.


Goa Lokayukta Justice B Sudershan Reddy Resigned
Goa Lokayukta justice B Sudershan Reddy has resigned from his post citing personal reasons on 17 October.Sudershan Reddy former judge of the Supreme Court was appointed as the Lokayukta on March, 8, 2013. Mr. Reddy, the first ever Lokayukta of the state, assumed charge in March 2013.


US Thriller Author Tom Clancy Died
Tom Clancy, the writer known for thrillers, especially The Hunt for Red October and Patriot Games, died in Baltimore, US on 1 October .He was credited with 17 New York Times bestsellers and had launched into the career of writing with the help of the then US president Ronald Reagan.Clancy arrived on best-seller lists in 1984 with “The Hunt for Red October.”Tom Clancy was born on 12 April 1947 in Baltimore, US.He was an American author who was best known for detailed espionage as well as military sciences stories set during and after the time period of the Cold War.

Legendary Singer Manna Dey Died
Legendary singer Manna Dey has died on 24 October in Bangalore.His original name was Prabodh Chandra Dey but he was nicknamed Manna.He began his playback career with the film ‘Tamanna’.He debuted in the film Tamanna in 1942, and went on to record more than 4000 songs during 1942-2013. The Government of India honoured him with the Padma Shri in 1971, the Padma Bhushan in 2005 and the Dadasaheb Phalke Award in 2007.


Prime Minister Manmohan Singh Visited Russia
Prime Minister Manmohan Singh Visited Russia on 20 – 21 October 2013.During the visit , Prime Minister Manmohan Singh attended the 14th India-Russia Annual Summit with President Vladimir Putin at Moscow.They discussed priority areas of bilateral cooperation and noted common positions on current international and regional issues.Both nations agreed to expeditiously finalise the General Framework Agreement and the Techno-Commerical Offer for for Units- 3 & 4 of the Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant.India and Russia pitched for implementation of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) quota reforms latest by January to give more representation to the emerging economies in the multilateral institution. India currently has a voting share of 2.44 per cent in the Washington-based IMF. US has the highest voting share of 17.69 per cent.Minister Manmohan Singh was conferred an Honorary Doctorate by the prestigious Moscow State Institute of International Relations.He became the first Indian to receive an honorary doctorate from the Moscow State Institute of International Relations.

Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh Visited China
Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh Visited China from 22 – 24 October 2013.During his three day visit , Manmohan Singh held bilateral talks with Chinese premier Li Keqiang in Beijing .After the talks , both nations signed a border defence cooperation agreement and several other agreements to focus on growth and strengthening of relationship between the two sides.The exchange of visits by the prime ministers within the same calendar year was the first since 1954. Premier Li Keqiang had visited India in May 2013. India and China agreed to study the possibility of setting up an economic corridor spanning the two nations and covering Bangladesh and Myanmar.


‘ Google ‘ Tops World’s Best Multinational Work Places List
According to the human resources consultancy ‘Great Place to Work Institute’ latest survey , Internet giant Google has emerged as the world’s best multinational company to work for, followed by software developer SAS Institute and network storage provider NetApp in the second and third place, respectively.Software giant Microsoft was ranked fourth.There is no India-based company in this list and all 25 firms are either American or European.

Indian-American Emily Shah Crowned ‘ Miss New Jersey USA 2014 ‘ Title
Eighteen-year-old Indian-American Emily Shah has won Miss New Jersey USA 2014 title.Emily Shah, a resident of Edison, home to a large Indian-American community, was crowned on 20 October at a glittering ceremony in Parsippani , a small hill township in the state.Emily Shah would now compete for Miss America and Miss Universe titles.


Archaeologists Discovered 3,300-year-old Ancient City In Iran
Archaeologists on 2 October have discovered an ancient city called ‘Idu ‘, that thrived between 3,300 and 2,900 years ago, hidden beneath a mound in the Kurdistan region of northern Iraq.Located in a valley on the northern bank of the lower Zab River, the remains of the city Idu, are now part of a mound created by human occupation called a tell, which rises about 32 feet above the surrounding plain.

World’s Largest Hindu Temple To Come Up In Bihar
The world’s largest Hindu temple named ” Virat Angkor Wat Ram Mandir ” with a towering height of 405 feet , will be built in Bihar.The proposed Virat Ramayan Mandir, at Janki Nagar near Kesaria in West Champaran district, about 125 km from Patna, will stand almost double the height of world-famous 12th century Angkor Wat temple complex in Cambodia, which is 215 feet high.The temple is to be built at a cost of over Rs.500 crore.


BPCL  –  Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited
AAA   –  Asian Athletics Association
CITU  –  Centre of Indian Trade Unions
EVM  –  Electronic Voting Machine
ERDA  –  Energy Research and Development Administration
FEMA  –  Foreign Exchange Management Act
GFCI  –  Global Financial Centres Index
GIC  –  General Insurance Corporation
MNC  –  Multi National Corporation
NASA  –  National Aeronautics and Space Administration
OPEC  –  Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries
WEF  –  World Economic Forum


Autobiography of Malala Yousafzai entitled ‘ I am Malala ‘ Released
The autobiography of Malala Yousafzai, the Pakistani schoolgirl who was shot by the Taliban for supporting girls’ education released on 8 October in London.Malala Yousafzai’s story is detailed in  I Am Malala: The Girl Who Stood Up for Education and was Shot by the Taliban, co-written with British journalist Christina Lamb, and tells of the day two Taliban gunmen boarded her school bus on 9 October 2012, and shot her in the head.The autobiography talks about Yousafzai’s life as an activist under the Taliban’s brutal rule in northwestern Pakistan in the mid-2000s, when the group banned female education and bombed local schools.


Mukul Mudgal Committee Submitted Report on Cinematograph Act
The Empowered Committee headed by Mukul Mudgal, retired Chief Justice of Punjab and Haryana High Court submitted its report on 9 October to Information and Broadcasting Minister, Government of India.The committee was appointed to examine issues of certification under the Cinematograph Act, 1952 and give recommendations.The committee was constituted by the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting on 4 February 2013.The committee revisited major areas of concern and has made key recommendations on issues such as: Advisory Panels; Guidelines for certification and issues such as portrayal of women, obscenity and communal disharmony; Classification of Films; Treatment of Piracy; Jurisdiction of the Appellate Tribunal; and Review of the provisions of the Cinematograph Act, 1952.Apart from giving its recommendations, the committee has also proposed a draft Cinematograph Bill.

Kirit Parekh Committee on Pricing of Diesel, Petrol & LPG Submits Report
Kirit Parikh committee on advising Pricing Methodology for Diesel, Domestic LPG and PDS Kerosene submitted report to the Petroleum and Natural Gas Ministry on 30 October.The committee in its report recommended a price increase of 5 Rupees per litre in diesel, 4 Rupees per litre in kerosene, and 250 Rupees in LPG cylinder with immediate effect.The Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas on 12 June 2013 constituted an Expert Group to advice on Pricing Methodology for Diesel, Domestic LPG and PDS Kerosene.The panel was headed by planning commission member Dr. Kirit S. Parikh.


United Nations Day Observed Across the World on 24 October
The United Nations Day was observed across the world on 24 October 2013. The UN Day is observed to mark the anniversary of entry into force in 1945 of the UN Charter. The founding document was ratified on this day by its signatories, including the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council. With this, the United Nations came into being officially. 24 October is celebrated and observed as the UN day since the year 1948. In the year 1971, the UN General Assembly recommended that this day should be observed as the public holiday by the Member States.

World Food Day Observed Every Year on 16 October
World Food Day celebrated on 16 October every year across the world since 1981. The main objective of the World Food Day is to strengthen national and international solidarity in the struggle against hunger, malnutrition and poverty and draw attention to achievements in food security and agricultural development.The Theme of the World Food Day 2013 is Sustainable Food Systems for Food Security and Nutrition.

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